What Does Attributed to Mean?

In order to understand what "attributed to" means and how it differs from terms like "manner of", "after" or similar terms, there are a few things you will need to know.  When buying art at auction, collectors rely on the information provided in the listings as well as details found in the catalogue to inform their purchase. When available, provenance, or history, regarding the ownership of the piece, is also provided.

Sometimes, when we work with estates, we find ourselves without any documentation and no verifiable details of the collection. The March 2nd auction is the perfect example of this scenario.

Janice Hedblom

Janice Hedblom passed away last year leaving behind a lovely art collection inherited from her husband, Jack Henry Hedblom and his father, Jack L. Hedblom of Chicago, IL. In Chicago, Jack L. Hedblom was the owner and proprietor of Tamerlane Arts and Antiquities, and he painstakingly amassed the large art collection.

Without any records, we use specific terms as guidance for our prospective buyers. You will see us commonly use the following:

  • “Attributed to…” the work is probably the work of the artist, or at least part of it.
  • “After…” the piece is a copy of a work of the artist. 
  • “Manner of…” the work is in the stye of the artist but likely of a later date. 
  • “Studio/workshop of…” work probably executed in the studio of the artist, possibly with their guidance. 
Examples of works “Attributed to…”


Lot 1247, Attributed to Emma Ciardi. Woman with Parasol, oil


Lot 1248, Attributed to Theodore Robinson. Houses by the River, oil


Lot 1320, Attributed to W.L. Metcalf. Winter Landscape, oil

Examples of works listed “Manner of…”


Lot 1299, Manner of Maurice Prendergast. Trees with Bridge, oil


Lot 1310, Manner of George Luks. Landscape with Barn, oil


Lot 1321, Manner of George Inness. Landscape with Rainbow oil

The works in the Hedblom Estate are priced to reflect the lack of documentation which places them in a highly affordable and collectible price range. The paintings are gorgeous and would be a lovely addition to any collection.


Kathleen Hamill
Director of Modern & Contemporary Art